My research focuses on justice and morality.
My work on justice investigates how and when people form a judgment that something is fair or unfair, and the roles that people’s emotions and moral convictions play in shaping their perceptions of fairness and reactions to transgressions. My work also investigates how people work out the complexities of distributing both the benefits and burdens of cooperative living. For example, I have investigated whether people's cultural and political orientations influence what they consider to be a fair allocation of resources. Recently, I have begun investigating third-party responses to injustice. For example, I have investigated how characteristics of situations and perceivers influence observers' preferences for punishment and compensation following a transgression.
My work on morality has focused on how individuals regulate and evaluate their own and others’ moral behavior. For example, I have investigated how people's feelings about their own morality influence whether they will engage in ethical or unethical behavior. In related work, I have examined the relationship between sacrifice and moral character judgments.
- Aggression, Conflict, Peace
- Applied Social Psychology
- Attitudes and Beliefs
- Causal Attribution
- Emotion, Mood, Affect
- Ethics and Morality
- Helping, Prosocial Behavior
- Organizational Behavior
- Political Psychology
- Adams, G. S. & Mullen, E. (2015). Punishing the perpetrator decreases compensation for victims. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 6, 31-38. DOI: 10.1177/1948550614542346
- Adams, G. S., & Mullen, E. (2013). Increased voting for candidates who compensate victims rather than punish offenders. Social Justice Research, 26, 168-192.
- Adams, G. S., & Mullen, E. (2012). The social and psychological costs of punishing. [Commentary on F. Guala’s “Reciprocity: Weak or Strong? What punishment experiments do (and do not) demonstrate]. Behavioral and Brain Sciences.
- Jordan, J., Mullen, E., & Murnighan, J. K. (2011). Striving for the moral self: The effects of recalling past moral actions on future moral behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 701-713.
- Maddux, W. W., Mullen, E., & Galinsky, A. G. (2008). Chameleons bake bigger pies and take bigger pieces: Strategic behavioral mimicry facilitates negotiation outcomes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 461-468.
- Morgan, G. S., Mullen, E., & Skitka, L. J. (2010). When values and attributions collide: Liberals’ and conservatives’ values motivate attributions for alleged misdeeds. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 1241-1254.
- Mullen, E., Bauman, C. W., & Skitka, L. J. (2003). Avoiding the pitfalls of politicized psychology. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 3, 171-176.
- Mullen, E., & Nadler, J. (2008). Moral spillovers: The effect of moral violations on deviant behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1239-1245.
- Mullen, E., & Skitka, L. J. (2009). Comparing Americans' and Ukrainians' allocations of public assistance: The role of affective reactions in helping behavior. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 40, 301-318.
- Mullen, E., & Skitka, L. J. (2006). Exploring the psychological underpinnings of the moral mandate effect: Motivated reasoning, group differentiation, or anger? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90, 629-643.
- Mullen, E., & Skitka, L. J. (2006). When outcomes prompt criticism of procedures: An analysis of the Rodney King case. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 6, 1-14.
- Skitka, L. J., Bauman, C. W., & Mullen, E. (2004). Political tolerance and coming to psychological closure following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks: An integrative approach. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 743-756.
- Skitka, L. J., & Mullen, E. (2002). The dark side of moral conviction. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 2, 35-41.
- Skitka, L. J., & Mullen, E. (2002). Understanding judgments of fairness in a real-world political context: A test of the value protection model of justice reasoning. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 1419-1429.
- Skitka, L. J., Mullen, E., Griffin, T., Hutchinson, S., & Chamberlin, B. (2002). Dispositions, scripts, or motivated correction? Understanding ideological differences in explanations for social problems. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 470-487.
- Mullen, E. (2007). The reciprocal relationship between affect and perceptions of fairness. In K. Tornblom & R. Vermunt (Eds.), Distributive and procedural justice: Research and social implications (pp. 15-37). Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
- Mullen, E., & Okimoto, T. G. (2015). Compensatory justice. In M. Ambrose & R. Cropanzano (Eds.), Handbook of Organizational Justice.
- Skitka, L. J., Bauman, C. W., & Mullen, E. (2015). Morality and Justice. In C. Sabbagh & M. Schmitt (Eds.), Handbook of Social Justice Theory and Research. Springer Press.
- Skitka, L. J., Bauman, C. W., & Mullen, E. (2008). Morality and justice: An expanded theoretical perspective and empirical review. In K. A. Hegtvedt & J. Clay-Warner (Eds.), Advances in group processes: Justice (Vol. 25, pp 1-27). Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing.
- Skitka, L. J., & Mullen, E. (2002). Psychological determinants of public opinion. In V. Ottati, et al., (Eds.), Social Psychological Application to Social Issues: The Social Psychology of Politics (pp. 107-134). New York: Kluwer Academic / Plenum Publishers.
- Justice and Behavioral Ethics
- Organizational Behavior
- Social Psychology
- Social Psychology of Justice
GWU School of Business
Department of Management
2201 G Street NW
Washington, District of Columbia 20052
- Phone: (202) 994-6976